Civil Rights Movement 8 February (also referred to as the American civil rights movement and other conditions )[b] in the United States was a decades-long struggle with the objective of enforcing legal and constitutional rights for African Americans that other Americans already enjoyed. With origins that dated back to the Reconstruction era through the late 19th century, the movement achieved its biggest legislative gains in the mid-1960s, after years of direct action and grassroots protests that were organized from the mid-1950s before 1968.
Encompassing plans, various groups, and coordinated social movements to achieve the goals of ending legalized racial segregation, disenfranchisement, and discrimination in the USA , the motion, using important nonviolentcampaigns, finally procured new recognition in federal law and federal security for all Americans.After the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the 1860s, the Reconstruction Amendments to the United States Constitution granted emancipation and inherent rights of citizenship to all African Americans, most of whom had recently been enslaved. For a period, African Americans voted and held political office, but they were increasingly deprived of civil rights, frequently beneath Jim Crow laws, and subjected to discrimination and sustained violence by whites from the South. Over the next century, various efforts were made by African Americans to secure their legal rights. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolentprotest and civil disobedience produced emergency situations and effective dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these scenarios, which emphasized the inequities faced by African Americans throughout the country. The lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, along with the outrage generated by seeing how he was mistreated, when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, mobilized the African American community nationwide.  Types of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the effective Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–56) in Alabama;”sit-ins” such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins(1960) in North Carolina and successful Nashville sit-ins in Tennessee; marches, such as the 1963 Birmingham Children’s Crusade and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide assortment of other nonviolent actions.Moderates in the motion worked with Congress to achieve the passage of several major pieces of federal legislation that overturned discriminatory practices and authorized supervision and enforcement by the federal government. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 expressly banned discrimination based on race, colour, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices; stopped unequal application of voter registration requirements; and prohibited racial segregation in schools, in the workplace, and in public accommodations. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities by authorizing federal oversight of elections and registration in areas with historical under-representation of minorities as voters. The Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and across the nation young people were motivated to take action.From 1964 through 1970, a tide of inner-city riots in black communities undercut support from the white middle class, but enhanced support from private foundations.  The emergence of this Black Power movement, which lasted from about 1965 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its practice of nonviolence. Rather, its leaders demanded that, in addition to the new laws obtained through the nonviolent movement, political and economic self-sufficiency needed to be developed in the black community.Many popular representations of the motion are based on the charismatic leadership and doctrine of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.. However, some scholars note that the motion was too diverse to be credited to any 1 individual, organization, or strategy.